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Legal Writing

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August 14, 2017, at 11:11 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.  It is essential that you become familiar with the conventions of formal writing.  Some of these are covered in the videos, but we recommend Chapter 3 of Richard Scragg's "Legal Writing: A Complete Guide to a Career in Law" which covers grammar.  Chapter 4 covers legal writing, and will also be very helpful to you in preparing for assignments.
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A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.  It is essential that you become familiar with the conventions of formal writing.  Some of these are covered in the videos, but we recommend Chapter 3 of Richard Scragg's [[https://waikato-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=64WAIKATO_ALMA2140429920003401&context=L&vid=64WAIKATO&search_scope=WAIKATO_ALL&tab=waikato_all&lang=en_US|''Legal Writing: A Complete Guide to a Career in Law'']] which covers grammar.  Chapter 4 covers legal writing, and will also be very helpful to you in preparing for assignments.
August 14, 2017, at 11:08 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.  It is essential that you become familiar with the conventions of formal writing.  Some of these are covered in the videos, but we recommend Chapter 3 of Richard Scragg's Legal Writing: A Complete Guide to a Career in Law which covers grammar.  Chapter 4 covers legal writing, and will also be very helpful to you in preparing for assignments.
to:
A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.  It is essential that you become familiar with the conventions of formal writing.  Some of these are covered in the videos, but we recommend Chapter 3 of Richard Scragg's "Legal Writing: A Complete Guide to a Career in Law" which covers grammar.  Chapter 4 covers legal writing, and will also be very helpful to you in preparing for assignments.
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[[#writ|Writing skills]]   |   [[#punct|Punctuation, generally]]    |   [[#apo|Apostrophes]]   |   [[#com|Commas, colons and semi-colons]]   |   [[#word|Word confusion]]   |   [[#ref|Referencing your sources]]   |    [[#use|Books on writing / academic writing]]   |   [[#ref|Referencing]]
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[[#writ|Writing skills]]   |    [[#use|Books on writing / academic writing]]   |   [[#ref|Referencing]]
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You need to be aware that there is zero tolerance for plagiarism at the University, whether it is intentional or unintentional, as stipulated in the [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|Assessment Regulations 2016.]].
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You need to be aware that there is zero tolerance for plagiarism at the University, whether it is intentional or unintentional, as stipulated in the [[https://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|Assessment Regulations 2016.]].
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*Become familiar with the [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|University’s Assessment Regulations 2005]].
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*Become familiar with the [[https://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|University’s Assessment Regulations 2016]].
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*The [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|University’s Assessment Regulations 2005]].
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*The [[https://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|University’s Assessment Regulations 2016]].
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A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.
to:
A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.  It is essential that you become familiar with the conventions of formal writing.  Some of these are covered in the videos, but we recommend Chapter 3 of Richard Scragg's Legal Writing: A Complete Guide to a Career in Law which covers grammar.  Chapter 4 covers legal writing, and will also be very helpful to you in preparing for assignments.
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*Punctuation is vital for understanding what has been written.
*Apostrophes are used in two ways - to replace missing letters in some words and to indicate possession.  Do you know the difference between '''its''' and '''it's'''?
*Commas can change the meaning of a sentence; colons and semi-colons: what they're used for
.
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*Punctuation is very important: it provides the signals to the reader that help them interpret the writer's words to obtain the correct meaning.  Generally, punctuation conveys emphasis (as with an exclamation mark!), or separates the clauses in sentences.
*Apostrophes indicate possession (e.g. Jane's bag), or indicate that letters are missing (e.g. don't).  Words with missing letters are usually contractions and do not belong in formal writing.  Do you know the difference between '''its''' and '''it's'''?
*Commas separate items in lists, and also provide for pauses that separate your sentence clauses out.  Commas can stand in for "and" (as they do in lists of items).
*Colons are used between independent clauses when the second sentence explains, illustrates, paraphrases, or expands on the first sentence.  Colons are often used to introduce lists or quotations.  The most important thing to remember about colons is that you only use them after statements that are complete sentences. Never use a colon after a sentence fragment.
*Semicolons separate major sentence elements. Semicolons are most often used to join together two clauses that could each be separate sentences — creating a longer sentence
.
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 [-Duration 8m 11s-]
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*
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*Introduction to the legal and academic writing.
*Covers essay structure and writing tips.
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[+Apostrophes - the right place for them+]\\
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[+Punctuation and Grammar+]\\
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[+Quotation and Paraphrasing+]\\
 [-Duration 3m 04s-]

*Covers when to quote and how to format short quotations and long quotations.
*Covers how to paraphrase when researching.
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[[#apo]]
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[+The importance of punctuation+]\\
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[+Introduction to Legal Writing+]\\
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*Punctuation is vital for understanding what has been written.
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*
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*Punctuation is vital for understanding what has been written.
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*Commas can change the meaning of a sentence; colons and semi-colons: what they're used for.
*Some words are very similar but mean different things, e
.g. to / too / two. Variations like this can be confusing for some people, but once again there’s a simple solution - you need to be clear about meaning.
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[+Commas, colons and semi-colons+]\\
 [-Duration 3m 25s-]

*Commas can change the meaning of a sentence; colons and semi-colons: what they're used for.

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[[#word]]
[+Word confusion+]\\
 [-Duration 2m 05s-]

*Some words are very similar but mean different things, e.g. to / too / two. Variations like this can be confusing for some people, but once again there’s a simple solution - you need to be clear about meaning.

%lfloat%Attach:write.png
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Presenting someone else's ideas as if they are your own is cheating. This type of cheating is called plagiarism. You need to be aware that there is a zero tolerance for plagiarism at this university, whether it is intentional or unintentional, as stipulated in the University’s [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|Assessment Regulations 2005.]]  The University, like many others around the world,  uses a software program to detect the percentage of copied material in a single assignment. Serious cases are referred on to the Disciplinary Committee which then decides whether any further action is to be taken.
to:
Presenting someone else's ideas as if they are your own is cheating. This type of cheating is called plagiarism.  There are three types of plagiarism which we look at in this module: intentional plagiarism (where you deliberately provide a false reference or omit to provide a reference); unintentional plagiarism (where you unintentionally fail to provide a reference or provide an inaccurate reference); and self-plagiarism (which is where you use work that you have previously submitted for one assignment in a subsequent assignment.  If you want to do this, you must first gain permission from your lecturer and reference the earlier assignment from which the material was taken).

You need to be aware that there is zero tolerance for plagiarism at the University, whether it is intentional or unintentional, as stipulated in the [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|Assessment Regulations 2016.]].

The University, like many others around the world, uses a software  program to detect the percentage of copied material in a single assignment. Serious cases are referred on to the Disciplinary Committee which then decides whether any further action is to be taken.  The University uses the Turnitin programme.  An example of a Turnitin report can be seen in the Academic Integrity 1 video, below. 
April 03, 2017, at 02:10 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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- types of plagiarism,  importance of referencing, how to avoid plagiarism.
April 03, 2017, at 02:10 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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Academic study requires you to consult a number of sources when researching your assignment, some of which you will quote or reference in your assignment.  However, if you copy passages of text into your assignment without providing an accurate reference to the source of that copied text you will have committed plagiarism.  This module looks at types of plagiarism; at the University of Waikato's Assessment Regulations 2016; at how the University identifies plagiarism; at the benefits of accurate referencing; and at how you can retain your academic integrity.
April 03, 2017, at 02:02 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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[[<<]]
These are all included in the Law Library's collection. Click on the link for more details about the book.

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=393446 |Effective legal writing : for law students and lawyers]]
*Ch 2: grammar; Ch 3: legal writing.

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1244963|Nemes and Coss' effective legal research]]
*Ch 2: citations and effective legal writing; includes a section on avoiding plagiarism at 2.65.
(:table width=100%:)
(:cell width=70%:)

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1251967 |Surviving law school]] 
*Ch 11: assignments.

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=842382 |Legal skills]]
*Ch 10: legal writing.

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=575298 |Legal research and writing in New Zealand]]
*Includes chapters on academic writing, legal memoranda, legal opinions, English and grammar.
(:cell width=30% align=left:)Attach:write.png
(:tableend:)

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1098357|The New Zealand legal system: structures and processes]]
* Check the Contents page, under Appendices.

[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=392476|Introduction to the New Zealand legal system]]
*See paragraphs 19.11 - 19.13.

%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1107457 |Learning  the law ]]
*Ch 9: answering essay questions; Ch 10: exam tips.
April 03, 2017, at 02:01 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
April 03, 2017, at 02:01 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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(:cell  width=15% :)  [[#pre|Prescribed referencing style]] &nbsp; | &nbsp;  [[#vid|Overview of the guide]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#temp|Assignment templates]]\\
See also: &nbsp; [[Academic integrity]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[tips for academic writing|Academic writing]]
(:tableend:)
[[#pre]]

[++Prescribed referencing style++]

(:table width=80%:)
(:cell width=10%:) [[http://www.lawfoundation.org.nz/style-guide/index.html|Attach:styleguide.png]]
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* The New Zealand Law Style Guide is available both [[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1187747|online and in print]].
*The Guide is  linked  from the image on the right, and also via the %newwin%[[http://www.waikato.ac.nz/law/student/|Law Student Homepage]] under Course Resources. 
*The Law Library's %newwin% [[(Attach:nzlsg.pdf)|Quick guide to the NZ Law Style Guide]] has a table showing the most commonly cited legal resources (statutes, cases, etc.) along with a direct link to the corresponding part of the official Style Guide.


[[#con]]

[[<<]]
[++Style Guide content ++]


The guide contains chapters on:
*Correct grammar and footnoting techniques.
*Citation of New Zealand Legislation and Case Law.
*How to reference official and government publications.
*Secondary source citations such as books, journal articles, reports and encyclopedia.
(:tableend:)
*Citation of other [=sources=] including interviews, emails, [=internet=] [=sources=], conference papers and newspapers.
*Jurisdiction by jurisdiction criteria for citing overseas legislation and case law.
*Information on the citation of international materials like UN documents, treaties, European Court of Human Rights decisions.
*Appendices on various other topics including Appendix 1 which lists the court identifiers for NZ courts and tribunals as well as the years from which they adopted neutral citation.
*Appendix 7 gives a sample bibliography.

[[#vid]]

[[<<]]
[++Style Guide overview ++]

The Law library has produced a series of videos designed to introduce you to the style guide:
(:table  width=80%  cellpadding=10 cellspacing=5:)
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[+Style Guide Part 1+]\\
[-Duration: 4m 20s-]

Overview of Chapter 1.

%newwin% [[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=65c3e4d1-8f5b-4c21-ad84-bdc7515d484f|Attach:style guide part 1.jpg]]
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[[#key]]
[+Style Guide Part 2+]\\
[-Duration: 3m 41s-]

Overview of Chapter 2.

%newwin% [[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=7e21391c-b7f6-483e-8951-00164e3e1947|Attach:style guide part 2.jpg]]
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[+Style Guide Part 3 +]\\
[-Duration: 4m 24s-]

Overview of Chapters 3 & 4.

%newwin% [[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=9b5cf9a6-fbc3-4dfc-b996-4cb831b12e86|Attach:style guide part 3.jpg]]
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[+Style Guide Part 4+]\\
[-Duration: 4m 23s-]

Overview of Chapters 5-10.

%newwin% [[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=6f3fb9a6-2ecc-4ba8-9d44-1af7059f1f52|Attach:style guide part 4 .jpg]]
(:tableend:)
[[#temp]]

[++Te Piringa Faculty of Law assignment templates++]

The Assignment templates are accessible from the %newwin%[[http://www.waikato.ac.nz/law/student/|Law Student Homepage]], under Course Resources, in the menu on the right. There are two templates, and you will need to [=download=] and  save them as  Word [=documents=] on your home share, home computer or USB.
*Law assignment template: prescribed margin and font settings are already set up. All you have to do is start typing.
* Law coversheet with plagiarism statement: set up as a form with fields requiring specific information.
April 03, 2017, at 01:51 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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[[#writ|Writing skills]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#punct|Punctuation, generally]]  &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#apo|Apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#com|Commas, colons and semi-colons]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#ref|Referencing your sources]] &nbsp; | &nbsp;  [[#use|Books on writing / academic writing]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#ref|Referencing]]
*See also: &nbsp; [[New Zealand Law Style Guide]] &nbsp; | &nbsp;  [[Academic integrity]]
(:tableend:)
[[#writ]]

[++Writing skills++]

A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. This series of short videos focuses on several different types of punctuation  and how to avoid using the wrong word in your writing.

[[#punct]]
(:table width=70% cellspacing=5 cellpadding=5 :)
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[+The importance of punctuation+]\\
&nbsp;[-Duration 3m 04s-]

*Punctuation is vital for understanding what has been written.
(:cell width=10% :)[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=8ccc6490-c6b0-439a-bb91-95fe0e97a3d0|Attach:grammarintro.png ]]
(:cellnr:)
[[#apo]]
[+Apostrophes - the right place for them+]\\
&nbsp;[-Duration 3m 10s-]

*Apostrophes are used in two ways - to replace missing letters in some words and to indicate possession.  Do you know the difference between '''its''' and '''it's'''?
(:cell width=10%:)[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=a7bb7e7a-aa71-4157-bbc1-8a43b3783458|Attach:apostrophes.jpg]]
(:cellnr:)
[[#com]]
[+Commas, colons and semi-colons+]\\
&nbsp;[-Duration 3m 25s-]

*Commas can change the meaning of a sentence; colons and semi-colons: what they're used for.

(:cell width=10%:)
[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=99112e7f-0f43-495e-af8b-a7a6cf9d6e99|Attach:commas.png]]
(:cellnr:)
[[#word]]
[+Word confusion+]\\
&nbsp;[-Duration 2m 05s-]

*Some words are very similar but mean different things, e.g. to / too / two. Variations like this can be confusing for some people, but once again there’s a simple solution - you need to be clear about meaning.

%lfloat%Attach:write.png
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[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=4f3e332d-5e1d-4cbd-aad2-106c7680cc0d|Attach:words.jpg]]
(:tableend:)
[[#use]]
[++Books on writing and academic writing++]

(:table width=100%:)
(:cell width=50%:)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=500423|Eats, shoots & leaves : the zero tolerance approach to punctuation]]

(:cell width=50%:)%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1186400|Writing that works: a guide for tertiary students]]

(:cellnr:)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=393446 |Effective legal writing : for law students and lawyers]]

(:cell:)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1098357|The New Zealand legal system: structures and processes]]
* Check the Contents page, under Appendices

(:cellnr:)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1056790|Your joking: an easy guide to correct punctuation, including how to know the difference between your and you're]]

(:cell:)%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=392476|Introduction to the New Zealand legal system]]
*See paragraphs 19.11 - 19.13

(:cellnr:)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1251967 |Surviving law school]] 
*Ch 11: assignments

(:cell :)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=842382 |Legal skills]]
*Ch 10: legal writing

(:cellnr:)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1244963|Nemes and Coss' effective legal research]]
*Ch 2: citations and effective legal writing; includes a section on avoiding plagiarism at [2'''.'''65]

(:cell :)
%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=575298 |Legal research and writing in New Zealand]]
*Includes chapters on academic writing, legal memoranda, legal opinions, English and grammar

(:cellnr:)%newwin%[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1107457 |Learning  the law ]]
*Ch 9: answering essay questions; Ch 10: exam tips
(:tableend:)

[[#ref]]
[[<<]]
[++Referencing your sources++]

Legal writing also includes providing references to sources used in your work. You’ll already be aware that there is a prescribed style for citation which is contained in the [[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1187747|New Zealand Law Style Guide]]. For information on what's in the Style Guide, see the  [[New Zealand Law Style Guide]] page in this wiki.

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[[<<]]
[++Plagiarism is cheating++]

Presenting someone else's ideas as if they are your own is cheating. This type of cheating is called plagiarism. You need to be aware that there is a zero tolerance for plagiarism at this university, whether it is intentional or unintentional, as stipulated in the University’s [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|Assessment Regulations 2005.]]  The University, like many others around the world,  uses a software program to detect the percentage of copied material in a single assignment. Serious cases are referred on to the Disciplinary Committee which then decides whether any further action is to be taken.

Most people know that they will commit plagiarism if they copy passages of text into their writing without providing an indication of where the copied text is from.
[[#happ]]

[[<<]]
[++Plagiarism happens  because++]

Writers commit plagiarism for various reasons. For students, some of the reasons may include
* not being aware of academic requirements
* cultural reasons[[#fn|'^1^']]
*stress / lack of time
*fear of failure
*inability to express ideas in own words
*poor research skills
*ease of copying from [=internet sources=]
*use of "paper mills"[[#fn|'^2^']].
[[#vid]]

[[<<]]
[++Videos ++]
(:table width=60% cellpadding=5 cellspacing=5:)
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[+Academic integrity, Part 1+]\\
[-Duration  5.07-]

*types of plagiarism
*the Turnitin program

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%align=center%%newwin%[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=84bd7f88-3fb8-418d-88ce-4792b9d4be37|Attach:acinteg1.png]]
(:cellnr:)
[+Academic integrity, Part 2+]\\
[-Duration  3.25-]

*common knowledge
*importance of referencing
*the internet
*the "quote/note" rule
(:cell:) %align=center%%newwin%[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=7e3547f3-24e4-4af5-991b-2dd675f1e4e7|Attach:acinteg2.png]]
(:tableend:)
[[#summ]]

[[<<]]
[++Summarising and paraphrasing++]

Taking notes involves either summarising or paraphrasing the author’s ideas.

* [+ Summarising+]
->If you read  a section of text, and reduce it down to key concepts in your own words, you are summarising.

*[+ Paraphrasing is vulnerable to plagiarism+]
->When you  paraphrase, you are rewriting the author’s ideas, but not necessarily in your own words.  This may involve shuffling a few words around and/or replacing some with words of a similar meaning. Paraphrasing isn’t illegal; it's OK to paraphrase - as long as it stays in your notes. By definition,  paraphrased content can’t be treated as quoted text because it isn’t an exact copy of the original text. But paraphrasing is ''extremely vulnerable to plagiarism''. When you revisit the notes you made the other week, you may not remember that the information you are about to copy into your assignment is paraphrased content. Even though it isn’t word-for-word copied, the Turnitin program will consider that it is too similar to the original.

*[+Avoid  problems with paraphrasing+]
->Set up some rules around paraphrasing and stick to them.
**Use tools to distinguish between paraphrased and summarised content in your notes, e.g., highlighter, underlining, coloured pen.
**Regardless of which note-taking option you use, the very first note you need to make is the source reference (author, publisher etc. / website).
** If your notes spill over to extra pages, add the source information to those pages as well. Then, when you transfer your notes into your assignment, make sure that you move the referencing details into your assignment too.
[[#tips]]
[[<<]]
%rfloat%Attach:plagtag2.png


[++Our top tips for avoiding plagiarism ++]

*Become familiar with the [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|University’s Assessment Regulations 2005]].
*Don't leave everything until the last moment.
*Read and summarise, rather than copy or paraphrase.
*When you're transferring  material from your notes to your assignment, make sure relevant [=source=] reference information is transferred at the same time.
*Direct quotes are acceptable as long as they are cited correctly. The  [[New Zealand Law Style Guide]] includes details for citing quotations.
*Apply the "You Quote It, You Note It" Rule: provide citations for all content in your writing,  except for your own original thoughts and ideas!
*If you aren't sure whether you should be referencing a [=source=], check with someone else.
[[#site]]

[[<<]]
[++Useful [=sources=]++]
*Plagiarism and academic integrity: a brief guide for new students [[http://law.waikato.ac.nz/lrs/uploads/Main/plag.pdf|Attach:pdf.png]]
*The Library's web page  [[http://www.waikato.ac.nz/library/study/guides/avoiding-plagiarism|How to avoid plagiarism]] inludes PDF guides for students.
*[[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1237676| How to cite, reference & avoid plagiarism at university ]] - this book is in the Library on Level 3; click on the link for more details.
*The University’s Student Learning Centre’s 30 minute Moodle module on Academic Integrity  - details for finding it in Moodle are included in the second video above.
*The [[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/assessment/assessment.html|University’s Assessment Regulations 2005]].
*The [[http://waikato.lconz.ac.nz/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1187747|New Zealand Law Style Guide]] prescribes the style of referencing for law. The wiki page on the [[NewZealandLawStyleGuide|Style Guide]] provides an overview of the content.
[[#fn]]
[[<<]]
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[[<<]]
(:table width=100% border=1 bordercolor=#fafafa  bgcolor=#e6e6e6 cellpadding=10 cellspacing=10:)
(:cell align=right width=20% bgcolor=#ededed :)  '''Page contents''':
(:cell bgcolor=#ededed :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
(:cellnr align=right bgcolor=#ededed :)'''Related content''':
(:cell bgcolor=#ededed:)[[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
(:tableend:)

The content of this page is to guide you through academic writing. In the first part we give you some hints on good writing - use of punctuation and how to avoid using the wrong word - and the second part shows you how to use the New Zealand Law Style Guide, which sets out the prescribed style of legal citation.

 
!!!Writing skills
A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. The video will give  you  some tips on how to smarten up your writing. The video’s content is summarised below as a “cheat sheet” to refer back to when you need help with punctuation and confusing words.

!!!Punctuation
*Common types of punctuation: full stops, commas, apostrophes, exclamation and question marks, colons and semi-colons.
*Vital for understanding what has been written[[#com]]
[[<<]]
*'''Commas '''
**Important for the meaning of a sentence.
**Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat''',''' Grandma”.
**Also used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)

* '''Apostrophes'''
**Apostrophes are used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters

%center float%Attach:combos.png
**Apostrophes are also used to indicate possession: 
-->  the cat’s bowl  &nbsp; [one cat]
-->  the cats’ bowls &nbsp;  [several bowls for more than one cat]
-->  Harvey Norman’s sale &nbsp;[brand name = Harvey Norman]
--> Farmers’ sale &nbsp;[brand name = Farmers]
--> James’s dogs &nbsp;[James owns the dogs] [[#sol]]
[[<<]]
''' Solving the apostrophe problem'''
*Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense.
*If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required, as in these examples:
%center float%Attach:solution.png [[#word]]
[[<<]]
'''Word confusion'''
*Variations in word endings can be confusing for some people, but once again there’s a simple solution - you need to be clear about meaning.

%center float%Attach:confusion.png
[[#tips]]


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!!!Tips for writing

This video includes:
*Punctuation - how to use it correctly
*Confusing words - solving the problem

Duration: 10m 09s
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February 13, 2013, at 02:45 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
February 13, 2013, at 02:45 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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February 13, 2013, at 02:45 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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(:cell bgcolor=#ededed :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp;
[[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
to:
(:cell bgcolor=#ededed :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
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(:cell bgcolor=#ededed :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp;
February 13, 2013, at 02:44 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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(:cell width=20% bgcolor=#e1e1e1 :)  '''Page contents''':
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(:cellnr bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)'''Related content''':
(:cell bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)[[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
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(:cell bgcolor=#ededed:)[[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
February 13, 2013, at 02:44 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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(:cell bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; |\\
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(:cell bgcolor=#ededed :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; |\\
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(:table width=80% border=1 bordercolor=#fafafa  bgcolor=#e6e6e6  cellpadding=10 cellspacing=10:)
(:cell width=20% bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)  '''Page contents''':
(:cell bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; |\\
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(:cellnr:)'''Related content''':
(:cell:)[[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
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(:cellnr bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)'''Related content''':
(:cell bgcolor=#e6e6e6 :)[[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
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February 13, 2013, at 02:36 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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[[<<]]
(:div:)  '''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
[[<<]]
'''Related content''': [[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
(:divend:)
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(:cell:)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
to:
(:cell:)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; |\\
[[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
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February 13, 2013, at 02:34 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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February 13, 2013, at 02:33 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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%center%(:table width=50%  :)
(:cell width=20%:)  '''Page contents''':
(:cell:)[[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
(:cellnr:)'''Related content''':
(:cell:)[[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
(:tableend:)
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(:div:)  %center%'''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
to:
(:div:)  '''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
February 13, 2013, at 02:31 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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[[<<]]
'''Related content''': [[New Zealand Law Style Guide]]
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February 13, 2013, at 02:28 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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--> James’s dogs &nbsp;[James owns the dogs]

[[#sol]]
to:
--> James’s dogs &nbsp;[James owns the dogs] [[#sol]]
[[<<
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%center float%Attach:solution.png

[[#word]]
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%center float%Attach:solution.png [[#word]]
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*Vital for understanding what has been written

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*Vital for understanding what has been written[[#com]]

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February 13, 2013, at 02:27 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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February 13, 2013, at 02:25 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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(:table  width=70%  cellpadding=5 cellspacing=5:)[[#title]]
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(:table  width=60%  cellpadding=5 cellspacing=5:)[[#title]]
February 13, 2013, at 02:22 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
February 13, 2013, at 02:22 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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'''Tips for writing'''
to:
!!!Tips for writing
February 13, 2013, at 02:21 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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*Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense. If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required.
to:
*Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense.
*
If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required, as in these examples:
February 13, 2013, at 02:20 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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 [[<<]]
to:
[[<<]]
February 13, 2013, at 02:19 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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--> - Important for the meaning of a sentence.
--> - Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat''',''' Grandma”.
--> - Also used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)
to:
**Important for the meaning of a sentence.
**Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat''',''' Grandma”.
**Also used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)
February 13, 2013, at 02:18 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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*'''Commas - two functions'''
to:
*'''Commas '''
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--> - Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
to:
--> - Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat''',''' Grandma”.
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**Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
to:
**Apostrophes are used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
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**Also used to indicate possession: 
to:
**Apostrophes are also used to indicate possession: 
February 13, 2013, at 02:17 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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--> - Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
to:
**Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
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--> - Also used to indicate possession: 
--> &nbsp; the cat’s bowl  &nbsp; [one cat]
--> &nbsp; the cats’ bowls &nbsp;  [several bowls for more than one cat]
--> &nbsp; Harvey Norman’s sale &nbsp;[brand name = Harvey Norman]
to:
**Also used to indicate possession: 
-->  the cat’s bowl  &nbsp; [one cat]
-->  the cats’ bowls &nbsp;  [several bowls for more than one cat]
-->  Harvey Norman’s sale &nbsp;[brand name = Harvey Norman]
February 13, 2013, at 02:16 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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'''Commas - two functions'''
*Important for the meaning of a sentence.
*Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
*Also used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)

'''Apostrophes'''
*Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
to:
*'''Commas - two functions'''
--> - Important for the meaning of a sentence.
--> - Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
--> - Also used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)

* '''Apostrophes'''
--> - Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
Changed lines 25-28 from:
*Also used to indicate possession: 
--> the cat’s bowl  &nbsp; [one cat]
--> the cats’ bowls &nbsp;  [several bowls for more than one cat]
--> Harvey Norman’s sale &nbsp;[brand name = Harvey Norman]
to:
--> - Also used to indicate possession: 
--> &nbsp; the cat’s bowl  &nbsp; [one cat]
--> &nbsp; the cats’ bowls &nbsp;  [several bowls for more than one cat]
--> &nbsp; Harvey Norman’s sale &nbsp;[brand name = Harvey Norman]
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February 13, 2013, at 02:15 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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*Important for the meaning of a sentence. Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
Used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)
to:
*Important for the meaning of a sentence.
*
Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
*Also used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)
February 13, 2013, at 02:14 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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Common types of punctuation: full stops, commas, apostrophes, exclamation and question marks, colons and semi-colons.
Vital for understanding what has been written
to:
*Common types of punctuation: full stops, commas, apostrophes, exclamation and question marks, colons and semi-colons.
*Vital for understanding what has been written
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February 13, 2013, at 02:13 PM by 130.217.128.35 -
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(:div:)  %center%'''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#write|Writing skills]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; 
to:
(:div:)  %center%'''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#com|Commas and apostrophes]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#sol|Solving the apostrophe problem]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#word|Word confusion]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#tips|video: Tips for writing]]
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February 13, 2013, at 12:56 PM by 130.217.128.37 -
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February 13, 2013, at 12:46 PM by 130.217.128.37 -
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(:div:)  %center%'''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#write|Writing skills]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; [[#style|Guide to the NZ Law Style Guide]]
to:
(:div:)  %center%'''Page contents''': &nbsp; [[#write|Writing skills]] &nbsp; | &nbsp; 
February 13, 2013, at 12:46 PM by 130.217.128.37 -
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[[#style]]
!!!Guide to the New Zealand Law Style Guide

[[#ref]]
%rfloat margin-top=5px margin-left=25px  margin-bottom=25px margin-right=25px% [[http://www.lawfoundation.org.nz/style-guide/index.html|Attach:style.png]]|
!!!Prescribed referencing style
* The New Zealand Law Style Guide available both online and in hardcopy [KUQ48.M45 Law Library].
*The guide is  linked  from the image on the right, and also via the %newwin%[[http://www.waikato.ac.nz/law/student/|Law Student Homepage]] under Course Resources. 
*The Law Library's %newwin% [[(Attach:nzlsg.pdf)|Quick guide to the NZ Law Style Guide]] has a table showing the most commonly cited legal resources (statutes, cases, etc.) along with a direct link to the corresponding part of the official Style Guide.
* There are certain things that have changed the 1st edition especially with regard to footnoting a [=source=] that you have just cited and in the way bibliographies are set out.
*Information about EndNote and law can be found on the page %newwin%[[EndNote for Law]]. Zotero is another to my mind more effective option and information about how to use that can be found on the [[zotero]] page
February 13, 2013, at 12:43 PM by 130.217.128.37 -
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!!!Guide to the New Zealand Law Style Guide
to:
!!!Guide to the New Zealand Law Style Guide

[[#ref]]
%rfloat margin-top=5px margin-left=25px  margin-bottom=25px margin-right=25px% [[http://www.lawfoundation.org.nz/style-guide/index.html|Attach:style.png]]|
!!!Prescribed referencing style
* The New Zealand Law Style Guide available both online and in hardcopy [KUQ48.M45 Law Library].
*The guide is  linked  from the image on the right, and also via the %newwin%[[http://www.waikato.ac.nz/law/student/|Law Student Homepage]] under Course Resources. 
*The Law Library's %newwin% [[(Attach:nzlsg.pdf)|Quick guide to the NZ Law Style Guide]] has a table showing the most commonly cited legal resources (statutes, cases, etc.) along with a direct link to the corresponding part of the official Style Guide.
* There are certain things that have changed the 1st edition especially with regard to footnoting a [=source=] that you have just cited and in the way bibliographies are set out.
*Information about EndNote and law can be found on the page %newwin%[[EndNote for Law]]. Zotero is another to my mind more effective option and information about how to use that can be found on the [[zotero]] page

February 13, 2013, at 10:30 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
February 13, 2013, at 10:29 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
Changed lines 24-28 from:
--> the cat’s bowl  [one cat]
--> the cats’ bowls  [several bowls for more than one cat]
--> Harvey Norman’s sale [brand name = Harvey Norman]
--> Farmers’ sale [brand name = Farmers]
--> James’s dogs [James owns the dogs]
to:
--> the cat’s bowl  &nbsp; [one cat]
--> the cats’ bowls &nbsp;  [several bowls for more than one cat]
--> Harvey Norman’s sale &nbsp;[brand name = Harvey Norman]
--> Farmers’ sale &nbsp;[brand name = Farmers]
--> James’s dogs &nbsp;[James owns the dogs]
February 13, 2013, at 10:29 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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--> the cat’s bowl  [one cat] ;
to:
--> the cat’s bowl  [one cat]
February 13, 2013, at 10:28 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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[[<<]]
February 13, 2013, at 10:28 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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[[<<]]
February 13, 2013, at 10:25 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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*Variations in word endings can be confusing for some people, but once again there’s a simple solution - you need to be clear about meaning.
February 13, 2013, at 10:25 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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to:
[[<<]]
February 13, 2013, at 10:23 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
Changed lines 33-35 from:
[[<<]]

Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense. If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required.
to:
*Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense. If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required.
February 13, 2013, at 10:23 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
Changed line 16 from:
Important for the meaning of a sentence. Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
to:
*Important for the meaning of a sentence. Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
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Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
to:
*Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
Changed lines 24-30 from:
Also used to indicate possession: 
the cat’s bowl  [one cat] ;
the cats’ bowls  [several bowls for more than one cat]
Harvey Norman’s sale [brand name = Harvey Norman]
Farmers’ sale [brand name = Farmers]
James’s dogs [James owns the dogs]
to:
*Also used to indicate possession: 
--> the cat’s bowl  [one cat] ;
--> the cats’ bowls  [several bowls for more than one cat]
--> Harvey Norman’s sale [brand name = Harvey Norman]
--> Farmers’ sale [brand name = Farmers]
--> James’s dogs [James owns the dogs]
Deleted line 31:
February 13, 2013, at 10:22 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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'''Apostrophes - Solving the problem'''
to:
''' Solving the apostrophe problem'''
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%center float%Attach:combos.png
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[[<<]]
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February 13, 2013, at 10:19 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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Apostrophes - Solving the problem
Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense. If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required
solution.png
to:
'''Apostrophes - Solving the problem'''

Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense. If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required.
%lfloat%Attach:
solution.png
February 13, 2013, at 10:15 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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February 13, 2013, at 10:11 AM by 130.217.128.35 -
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'''Tips for writing'''
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'''Tips for writing''' 
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This video includes:
*Punctuation - how to use it correctly
*Confusing words - solving the problem

Duration: 10m 09s
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[[http://coursecast.its.waikato.ac.nz/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=89b5287a-ae73-4b9e-a8b7-904790aa3bae|Attach:gram.png]]
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it’s = it is / it has she’s /  he’s = she is / he is I’ll = I will
doesn’t = does not you’re = you are won’t = will not
don’t = do not we’ve = we have should’ve = should have (not should of)
they’re = they are


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What’s written How it reads What should have been written
our pizza’s are ... our pizzas is are ... our pizzas are ...
dog’s are friendly dog is are friendly dogs are friendly
they’re function is to ... they are function is to ... their function is to
who’s fingerprints ... who is fingerprints ... whose fingerprints


.
Word confusion
to / too / two

to going to / up to /  give to /
need to / required to / meant to
too 
[two meanings] 1.  excessive
2.  as well; also too much / too long
I was there too .
two the word for 2 two of everything



then / than

then
[several
meanings] 1. at a point in time
2. a progression [after which]
3. as well
4. therefore It was then that I realised …
… then I went home. 
The price is $10, but then add  GST …
If you need to travel, then you have to ...
than comparison less than  / further than



bought / brought

bought past tense of buy;
purchased; I bought it ...
brought past tense of bring;
took or taken I brought it to show you .



effect / affect

These are frequently confused
effect
effect / effected outcome of; result of
bring / brought about The effects of the new policy
This will effect a change in policy
This has effected a change in policy
affect affected influence on;  impact on
influenced by /  impacted on The new policy has affected my work
Workers affected by the new policy

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solution.png


'''Word confusion'''
confusion.png

'''Tips for writing'''
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The content of this page is to guide you through academic writing. In the first part we give you some hints on good writing - use of punctuation and how to avoid using the wrong word - and the second part shows you how to use the New Zealand Law Style Guide, which sets out the prescribed style of legal citation.
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!!!Writing skills
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!!!Guide to the New Zealand Law Style Guide
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[[<<]]

A major part of university studies involves writing assignments. Universities have a low tolerance  for spelling errors, poorly constructed sentences and incorrect use of punctuation. The video will give  you  some tips on how to smarten up your writing. The video’s content is summarised below as a “cheat sheet” to refer back to when you need help with punctuation and confusing words.

!!!Punctuation
Common types of punctuation: full stops, commas, apostrophes, exclamation and question marks, colons and semi-colons.
Vital for understanding what has been written

'''Commas - two functions'''
Important for the meaning of a sentence. Appropriate use and placement is essentia, e.g. “Let’s eat Grandma” and “Let’s eat, Grandma”.
Used in lists in place of the word AND (sugar, butter, milk)

'''Apostrophes'''
Used in word combinations to indicate one (or more) missing letters
it’s = it is / it has she’s /  he’s = she is / he is I’ll = I will
doesn’t = does not you’re = you are won’t = will not
don’t = do not we’ve = we have should’ve = should have (not should of)
they’re = they are


Also used to indicate possession: 
the cat’s bowl  [one cat] ;
the cats’ bowls  [several bowls for more than one cat]
Harvey Norman’s sale [brand name = Harvey Norman]
Farmers’ sale [brand name = Farmers]
James’s dogs [James owns the dogs]

Apostrophes - Solving the problem
Read what you’ve written to see if it makes sense. If you’re still unsure, try rephrasing your sentence so that an apostrophe isn’t required
What’s written How it reads What should have been written
our pizza’s are ... our pizzas is are ... our pizzas are ...
dog’s are friendly dog is are friendly dogs are friendly
they’re function is to ... they are function is to ... their function is to
who’s fingerprints ... who is fingerprints ... whose fingerprints


.
Word confusion
to / too / two

to going to / up to /  give to /
need to / required to / meant to
too 
[two meanings] 1.  excessive
2.  as well; also too much / too long
I was there too .
two the word for 2 two of everything



then / than

then
[several
meanings] 1. at a point in time
2. a progression [after which]
3. as well
4. therefore It was then that I realised …
… then I went home. 
The price is $10, but then add  GST …
If you need to travel, then you have to ...
than comparison less than  / further than



bought / brought

bought past tense of buy;
purchased; I bought it ...
brought past tense of bring;
took or taken I brought it to show you .



effect / affect

These are frequently confused
effect
effect / effected outcome of; result of
bring / brought about The effects of the new policy
This will effect a change in policy
This has effected a change in policy
affect affected influence on;  impact on
influenced by /  impacted on The new policy has affected my work
Workers affected by the new policy